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    Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hard working and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don't know where they should go next. 
    The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the ten other countries surveyed. 
    While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression.   "Those things that do not show up in the test scores personality, ability, courage or humanity are completely ignored," says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party education committee. "Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild. " Last year Japan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the pre-war emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War Ⅱ had weakened the  "Japanese morality of respect for parents. " 
    But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. "In Japan," says educator Yoko Muro, "it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure." With economic growth has come centralization (集中); fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two-generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured length commutes   (travels to and from work.and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and  family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that the United States, has increased   by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by 
nearly one-quarter. 

1.[单选题]In Toshiki Kaifu's opinion, Japanese education
  • A.should reinforce the basic aspects of education
  • B.aims to eliminate the root of campus violence
  • C.has failed in nurturing kids' moral virtues
  • D.should undergo a complete reform on morals
  • 解题思路:本段前两句指出: “虽然日本的教育因强调基础知识而经常受到外国人的赞扬,但是它往往强调应试和机械学习而忽视创造性和自我表达。在考分中得不到体现的那些东西——个性、能力、勇气或人性——完全被忽视了。”第一句是本段主题句,第二句Toshiki Kaifu的话是对第一句的进一步解释和说明。从中可看出,Toshiki Kaifu认为日本的教育注重应试和机械学习而却忽视了对个性、能力、勇气或人性等这些道德品质的教育。可知C项符合文意,故为答案。文中提到的是“忽视道德品质的教育”,因而D项中的“应对道德观念进行全盘改革”与文意不符。
2.[单选题]It can be inferred that Mitsuo Setoyama
  • A.thinks it necessary to stick to liberal reforms
  • B.advocates conservative ideas on social reforms
  • C.is not satisfied with the present education ideals
  • D.regards the respect for parents as the core of education
  • 解题思路:该句指出: “去年,时任教育大臣的濑户光夫就提出责难,他认为二战后美国占领军队官方所引进的自由改革削弱了‘日本人尊敬父母的道德观’。”由此可见他对目前的教育理念并不认同,并不满意.故C项为正确答案。D项属于过度推断,应排除。
3.[单选题]According to the passage, urban Japanese
  • A.enjoy more the convenience of modem life than rural people
  • B.have realized the objective set down a decade ago
  • C.cherish more the chance to live with other relatives
  • D.are more likely to be the victim of the current life-styles
  • 解题思路:解答该题,需理清最后一段的行文脉络。该段第一句为本段中心句,在讨论日本的生活方式时指出: “在日本,问题绝对不是你是否喜欢自己的工作和生活,而仅仅是你能承受多大的负荷。”之后文章举在城市居住和生活的日本人为例说明了这种生活方式给他们带来的不便乃至痛苦。由此可见,在城市居住和生活的日本人更可能成为目前日本生活方式的牺牲品。故D项符合文意,为正确答案。
4.[单选题]Compared with people a decade ago, Japanese nowadays
  • A.are less likely to observe conventional ideas on working
  • B.tend to work harder for themselves than for a company
  • C.are more clear about what they should do in their lives
  • D.are always confused by the western standard on hard working
  • 解题思路:第二句指出: “但是,日本人正在经历传统工作道德价值观的日趋下降。”而后第三句提出“l0年前,日本年轻人工作勤奋……”,由此可见,第二、三句是将l0年前的日本人和现在的日本人进行对比,A项(越来越不遵从传统的工作观念)中的are less likely与文中a decline对应,符合文意,故为答案。
5.[单选题]According to the passage, Japanese teenagers
  • A.are more interested in studying in the U.S. than in other countries
  • B.are not sure about whether their personal sacrifices are worth the effort
  • C.take personal sacrifices as a burden for individual development
  • D.are eager to graduate from school and hunt for a good job
  • 解题思路:该句指出: “……这些青少年已经开始质疑在为了进好学校学习和找好工作而攀登日本等级森严的社会阶梯的过程中所做出的巨大的个人牺牲是否值得。”由此可见,日本年轻人不确定自己的个人牺牲是否值得。故B项符合文意。为正确答案。其他三项文中未提及。
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  • 参考答案:C,C,D,A,B